“The Outer Rampart” of the Fortress on Mountain Unyuk by the River Yenisei

The material was received by the Editorial Board: 2014-11-20
In 2014, we explored the site of Mountain Unyuk (on the right bank of the Yenisei River, Krasnoturansk region of Krasnoyarsk Krai). There is a complex of fortifications there which includes the main (large) fortress and a fortified camp of Altyn Khan (built by him in front of the fortress in 1652). Back in 1739, G. F. Miller mentioned that the fortress had double shafts around. However, the «outer wall» could not be discovered on the site as about 2/3 of the wall was destroyed in the process of plowing. We found out that what we first took for the «outer wall» turned the remains of one of the defensive lines of the Altyn Khan’s camp. Only a thorough examination of the whole mountain revealed the real shaft. It happened due to our finding some small residues of the southeastern and northwestern ends of the shaft and was also a result of a thorough search on the field plowed. In addition, we discovered two fragments of a stone wall. The wall used to continue the defense line in the south-eastern direction to the top of the mountain, which has a steep southern edge. Thus, we set the exact location of the outer line of defense for the fortress.

Keywords: Middle Yenisei, Minusinsk Hollow, mountain Unyuk, fortifications, «outer wall», Altyn Khan, Mergen Taisha.

“The Outer Rampart” of the Fortress on Mountain Unyuk by the River Yenisei
References: Sergey G. Skobelev, Anton V. Vybornov, Mikhail A. Ryumshin “The Outer Rampart” of the Fortress on Mountain Unyuk by the River Yenisei . . С. 66–72.